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Biometric technology is a technology that relies on human body characteristics for authentication. Nowadays, most smart phones have the functions of face recognition, fingerprint recognition and iris recognition, and these technologies belong to the category of biometric technology. Among them, fingerprint identification technology is a widely used biometric technology.
Fingerprints are uneven lines on the front skin at the end of human fingers, and their arrangement has a certain regularity. There are many kinds of detail feature points of fingerprint, and fingerprint identification technology uses these detail feature points to identify through comparison. Everyone's fingerprints are different, and there are obvious differences in the fingerprints of a person's ten different fingers, so fingerprint identification is very effective in identity identification. And because fingerprint has stability, uniqueness and convenience, it is the most representative in the field of biometrics.
Fingerprint identification mode and process are divided into the following steps:
Fingerprint image acquisition
Fingerprint identification technology will use special fingerprint acquisition instrument, scanner, digital camera and other equipment to collect living fingerprint images.
Fingerprint image compression
The computer will compress the large fingerprint database to reduce the storage space of the system.
Fingerprint image processing
Fingerprint image processing includes fingerprint region detection, image quality judgment, pattern and frequency estimation, image enhancement, fingerprint image binarization and thinning.
In this step, the fingerprint types will be divided based on the pattern as the basic form, mainly according to the basic form of central pattern and triangle.
Fingerprint feature and detail extraction
Fingerprint morphological features include center (upper and lower) and triangular points (left and right). Fingerprint detail features include starting point, end point, junction point and intersection of lines. The computer will extract these features of fingerprint.
At this step, the computer will first roughly match the patterns of two pairs of fingerprints, and then accurately match the shape and detail feature points of fingerprints to obtain the similarity ratio, sort and make the final decision.
At present, the fingerprint identification technology has been very mature. After the update iteration, the fingerprint identification equipment also has a high recognition rate and high cost performance. Therefore, it has been widely used in various fields. The most common in daily life is to integrate fingerprint identification technology into mobile phones, computers and other devices for user authentication.
But at present, fingerprint identification technology is not perfect.
👉Firstly, fingerprint identification technology has high requirements for the environment, which will be limited by the humidity and cleanliness of fingers. If the fingerprint is stained with oil, water or dirt, it will affect the identification result;
👉Secondly, the requirements of fingerprint imaging are relatively high. Some people's fingerprints have fewer detailed feature points, which may lead to failure of imaging;
👉Thirdly, the recognition rate will also be reduced when there are peeling, scars, calluses and other states of finger fingerprints;
👉Fourthly, the user's fingerprint indentation may remain on the fingerprint collection equipment, which is at risk of being copied and used;
👉Fifthly, the operation of fingerprint recognition requires a high degree of standardization, and non-standard operation will reduce the recognition rate.
Fingerprint identification avoids the cumbersome processes such as memory and input of traditional passwords. It is an epoch-making innovative technology in world.
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